Notably, the skin has three layers, which include the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis subcutaneous fat layers. Skin is one of the largest organ systems in the body, and it contains nerve receptors that respond to stimuli like pain, touch, cold, heat and pressure. The basic function of the skin is to protect the internal body organs by inhibiting the entry of disease-causing organisms. In addition, the skin regulates the body temperature, and it eliminates body toxins through perspiration.
Definition of the Dermis Layer
The dermis layer is the second layer of the skin, and it lies beneath the epidermis layer. This skin layer contains collagen, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers. Collagen is the protein that adds strength to the skin. Reticular fibers are thin protein fibers that reinforce collagen in supporting the skin. Elastic fibers are proteins that add flexibility to the skin. Dermis contains two skin layers, which include papillary layer and reticular layer.
The papillary layer contains loose connective tissues, and it lies directly beneath the epidermis layer. In some cases, papillary may have capillaries that provide nourishment to the epidermis layer. In other cases, this layer contains receptors. The reticular layer contains intricate pattern of collagen fibers that provide skin elasticity. Furthermore, reticular layer of the dermis contains receptors for deep pressure.
As mentioned earlier, the dermis contains a thick layer of collagen and elastin tissues, which provide elasticity and strength. In addition, the skin contains nerve endings that respond to pain, pressure, cold and heat. Furthermore, this skin layer contains sweat glands and sebaceous glands, blood vessels and hair follicles.
Firstly, the dermis allows the skin to respond to stimuli because of the nerve endings. When you expose your skin to extreme conditions like heat, cold or pressure, the nerve endings transmit the pain to the brain, it translates the stimuli, and it triggers the right reaction. It is important to note that some areas contain more nerves than others do. For instance, the fingers and the toes have more nerve endings, and that is why they are sensitive to touch.
Secondly, the dermis provides nourishment to the skin through the blood vessels. In this regard, this skin layer regulates the body temperature according to the external factors. When you expose the skin to heat, the blood vessels enlarge and allow the blood to flow near the skin surface and, therefore, lose heat. On the other hand, cold makes the blood vessels constrict in order to retain body heat.
The dermis maintains skin moisture through the secretion of sebum oil by the sebaceous glands. In addition, sebum oil keeps the skin soft, and it prevents entry of foreign substances into the skin. The hair follicles contain stem cells, which facilitate skin regeneration and repair.